Summer rituals

Summer is a time for more light, warmth, and expansion. In nature, plants are fully “leaved” and flowers are blooming. The summer season is the perfect time to slow down, immerse ourselves in nature, and practice lots and lots of self-care rituals.

Soothing and cooling aromatherapy summer rituals

  • Choose essential oils that are cooling to the body/skin and balance emotions and encourage rest, relaxation, softness and gentleness. Lavender, peppermint, spearmint, and vetiver essential oils are all great choices. Rose absolute is also a beautiful choice!
  • Nourish the skin and perform a daily or weekly massage using cooler plant oils such as coconut or sunflower oil, along with cooling essential oils.
  • Create aromatic spritzers with cooling hydrosols of peppermint or rose – and spray on your face and the back of the neck.
  • Add fresh mint to your drinking water.
  • Incorporate essential oils into your yoga and/or meditation practice by diffusing essential oils that are cooling. Try blending a tiny amount of spearmint or peppermint oil with lavender essential oil for a refreshing & soothing diffuser blend.
  • Spend time in nature. Surround yourself with flowers and take time to immerse yourself in the many soothing aromas of summer.

Make a Summer Salt Scrub

  • 1 cup Himalayan pink sea salt (finely ground)
  • 1 tbsp finely ground organic peppermint leaves
  • 2 tbsp finely ground organic lavender petals
  • 1/2 cup sunflower oil
  • 16 drops lavender essential oil
  • 8 drops spearmint essential oil

Watch the video for directions on the process of making the salt scrub.

What are your favourite aromatherapy summer rituals & practices? I’d love to hear from you.

Are fragrance oils natural?

The gorgeous sweet floral scent of Mayday trees is everywhere in my neighbourhood this week. Besides lilacs, it is one of my favourite scents of spring.

Even though they are so aromatic, both Mayday and lilac blossoms – as well as many other beautiful florals (like peonies) – do not produce an essential oil.

However, the “aroma” of these beautiful blooms are readily available as fragrance oils. Do you remember the Body Shop’s lilac oil? 

What’s the difference between an essential oil and a fragrance oil?

Essential oils are highly aromatic substances found in specialized cells of certain plants.

Technically, when this substance is in the plant, it’s called an essence. After it’s extracted, the aromatic substance is referred to as an essential oil. The majority of essential oils are extracted from the plant through a process of steam distillation.

Essential oils are complex chemical compounds. A typical essential oil will contain more than 100 different chemical constituents. Essential oils have a variety of therapeutic properties; some may be stimulating, calming, antiviral, antiseptic, grounding, and uplifting – all depending on the chemical constituents that are present.

Fragrance oils, are blended synthetic aroma compounds. More than 95 percent of the chemicals in synthetic fragrances are derived from petrochemicals.

Fragrance oils are cheaper to produce and are available in a wide variety of scents – like lilac or peony or summer breeze.

Fragrance oils may smell pleasant, but they don’t contain any of the therapeutic and healing properties of essential oils.

In fact, of the thousands of chemicals used in fragrances, most have not been tested for toxicity, alone or in combination. Many of these unlisted ingredients are irritants and can trigger allergies, migraines, and asthma symptoms (David Suzuki Foundation, n.d.).

Environmental Working Group researchers found more than 75 percent of products listing the ingredient “fragrance” contained phthalates which have been shown to disrupt hormone activity, reduce sperm counts, and cause reproductive malformation, and have been linked to liver and breast cancer, diabetes, and obesity. Pretty horrible, right?

You can read the EWG’s full report here: Not So Sexy: The Health Risks of Secret Chemicals in Fragrance

Reawaken your sense of smell

When I facilitate an aromatherapy workshop, there are usually a few participants who smell organic lavender essential oil for the first time and they can’t quite believe what they are smelling! It smells so good and real and…so much better than synthetic lavender fragrance oil.

If you are new to aromatherapy and essential oils, it might be difficult to distinguish the difference between a synthetic lavender oil and a true lavender essential oil. But over time, your nose will become more experienced and sensitive to the many different layers of aroma.

And it won’t be long before you’ll notice how fragrance oils smell inferior when compared to pure essential oils (Aromaweb, 2017).

Even the scientist responsible for the most patents on synthetic aromas acknowledged that “nature is the greatest inventor in the universe” and that the scent of living plants was ultimately too elusive to fully re-create (Balahoutis, 2013).


Aromaweb. 2017. What are fragrance oils? Retrieved from

Balahoutis, A. 2013. Retrieved May 14, 2017, from

How to make a salt scrub

Salt scrubs are completely invigorating to the body and mind. They are simple to make, easy to use, and leave your skin feeling soft and glowing!

Massaging the skin of the whole body (towards the heart from bottom to top) with a salt scrub is a simple practice that removes dead skin cells and increases lymphatic circulation.

Apply once a week in the shower, before you turn the water on. I’ve chosen Sunday as the day of the week to take time for this simple act of self-care.

Apply a small amount at a time. Store it in a glass container if it will not be used immediately. DO NOT apply to newly shaved or waxed areas, wounds, face or to the breast area.

Salt Scrub Basic recipe

  • 1 cup sea salt
  • ½ cup carrier oil (My favorite is apricot kernel oil, but you can use any unrefined vegetable oil that you like.)
  • 24 – 48 drops of essential oils (1 – 2% dilution)

Here’s a video of a Rosemary Juniper Salt Scrub that I recently made for the Ayurveda, Yoga, and Aromatherapy workshop that I facilitated at Journey Yoga Wellness with Rose Marie Theriault. This recipe comes from The School for Aromatic Studies.



Rose: essential oil profile

The rose has traditionally been called the Queen of Flowers and in aromatherapy, rose is often thought of as the queen among essential oils.

Besides the gorgeous smell, what I love most about the rose plant is that it gives us so many beautiful and nourishing by-products: the essential oil & absolute from the blossoms, the hydrosol from the distillation process, and a plant oil from the fruit (rosehips).

Rose essential oil & absolute

I love to use Rosa damascena in my skin care formulations. It is available as an essential oil and an absolute.

Rose “otto” essential oil is steam distilled from the blossoms. The rose petals are placed in a container with pure water and then slowly heated. The warm water causes the flowers to release their essential oil. The steam and essential oil pass through a cooling unit and then travel to a container where the cooled essential oil floats on the surface of the cooled water. The essential oil is collected and sold as Rose Otto. The water that remains is called rose hydrosol.

Rose absolute is created through a solvent extraction process. This process produces a greater yield than distillation which is why Rose absolute tends to be less expensive than Rose otto.

While distilled rose essential oil is clear to very pale yellow, the absolute is a beautiful orange-reddish color and has a gorgeous sweet, fresh smell. My Rose absolute comes from Bulgaria’s Rose Valley, which is one of the largest producers of rose oil.

It takes 60,000 roses to produce one ounce of Rosa damascena absolute – making it incredibly precious and expensive.

Aromatherapists love to use Rose absolute in skin care products because it is wonderful for all skin types, especially dry, mature, and sensitive skin. Scientific research has shown that topical application of Rose absolute improved skin texture and reduced the appearance of atopic dermatitis.


But what I love best about Rose absolute is that the gentle and warm scent reduces anxiety and instills a sense of calm and well-being.

This 2012 study showed that the inhalation of rose essential oil actually reduces cortisol levels (a stress-reducing hormone) and decreases transepidermal  water loss (TEWL), an index of the disruption of skin-barrier function.

This 2016 study concluded that inhalation aromatherapy using Rosa damascena could be an effective complementary therapy in burn patients for pain relief.

Rose hydrosol

As mentioned above, rose hydrosol is created during the distillation of rose essential oil.

I love to mist my face with rose hydrosol every evening before applying my face serum. You can even saturate a cotton ball and apply topically as a facial toner. The aroma is beautiful and helps reduce anxiety and promote feelings of self love. A perfect addition to your green beauty ritual!

Rosehip Seed Oil

This beautifully nourishing oil comes from the hips (or fruit) of the rose bush. It is very high in vitamin C (about 20 times more than oranges).


It is a highly regenerative plant oil and rich in linoleic acid.

Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated essential fatty acid that is important in building the membrane that surround every skin cell. It helps to strengthen the protective lipid barrier that lies beneath the surface of the skin and guards against moisture loss (Shutes, 2016).

Rosehip seed oil also has an exceptional effect in reducing the hyperpigmentation of scars and healing damaged skin.

It is quickly absorbed into the skin, and it is one of my absolute favourite oils to include in my bespoke face oils and serums that I create for my clients.

Want to learn more?

Stay tuned for an upcoming spring workshop on creating your own green beauty rituals with rose.

Forest Bathing

When I am among the trees, especially the willows and the honey locust, equally the beech, the oaks and the pines, they give off such hints of gladness.
I would almost say that they save me, and daily.

I am so distant from the hope of myself, in which I have goodness, and discernment,
and never hurry through the world but walk slowly, and bow often.

Around me the trees stir in their leaves and call out, “Stay awhile.”
The light flows from their branches.

And they call again, “It’s simple,” they say, “and you too have come into the world to do this, to go easy, to be filled with light, and to shine.”

-Mary Oliver

Have you ever noticed how good you feel after spending time in the forest surrounded by trees?

Shinrin-yoku is a term that means “taking in the forest atmosphere” or “forest bathing.” It was developed in Japan during the 1980s and  is a recognized relaxation and/or stress management activity in Japan.

There have been numerous studies on the positive effects and benefits of forest bathing and there is a really incredible aromatherapy connection.

This scientific study concluded that forest environments promote lower concentrations of cortisol, lower pulse rate, lower blood pressure, greater parasympathetic nerve activity, and lower sympathetic nerve activity than do city environments.

This is not a big surprise to any of us who spend time in nature.


Another scientific study concluded that forest bathing actually boosts the immune system function….and aromatherapy plays a role. 

In this study, the scientist concluded that breathing in the tree essential oils that are present in the forest area can actually boost our immune system. These tree essential oils contain  antimicrobial volatile organic compounds known as phytoncides.

When we breath in phytoncides, like a-pinene and limonene, our bodies respond by increasing the number and activity of a type of white blood cell called natural killer cells (NK). These cells kill tumor and virus-infected cells in our body.

In the above mentioned study, increased NK activity from a three day, two night forest bathing trip lasted for more than 30 days.

Forest Bathing at Home

While it’s not the same thing as physically being in a forest, we can create a forest bathing experience at home using some tree essential oils. I like to diffuse  organic coniferous tree oils that come from Canada when I do this.

Black spruce (Picea mariana), Balsam fir (Abies balsamea), and White pine (Pinus strobus linnaeus) are all botanical beauties. They are anti-microbial essential oils and the scent makes you feel uplifted and peaceful at the same time.

Try diffusing them separately or combine them together:

  • 2 drops black spruce
  • 2 drops white pine
  • 3 drops balsam fir

Do you have plans to spend some time forest bathing?

Highlights of 2016

1912 Aromatherapy was created in 2016 – and this first year has truly nourished my creative spirit.

I am deeply grateful to my family, friends, collaborators, and clients for all of your support.

Sharing my love of the natural aromatic world and the art and science of aromatherapy is a true delight for me. Stepping into the 1912 studio – part aromatic apothecary and part fragrant botanical playground – brings me joy. Formulating and creating nourishing aromatic blends that reflect the beauty and healing power of the natural world keeps me grounded. Connecting with clients one-on-one, facilitating aromatherapy workshops, and introducing others to aromatherapy and its ability to soothe and heal the body, mind, and spirit is such an honor.

Here is a collection of photos from the past year that celebrate the big and small steps that 1912 Aromatherapy (and I) have taken. Click on the first photo to watch the slide show and read the photo captions to learn more about my journey this year.

Experiencing scent

When we want to focus exclusively on a beautiful piece of music or taste an exquisite handmade piece of chocolate, we often close our eyes. Why? Closing our eyes shuts out visual distraction and we are able to bring our focus inward to heighten the sensory experience.

We can approach smell in much the same way.

As we enter the holiday season – a time that is filled with gorgeous botanical fragrances – we can use the scents around us as a way to pull us more fully into the present moment.

When we fully engage with a scent and it becomes our focus, we can detach from busy distracting thoughts and experience a state of mindfulness and reflective awareness (Peace Rhind, 2014).

A Mindful Fragrant Reflection

Adapted from Mandy Aftel’s Fragrant: The Secret Life of Scent

Close your eyes.

Take a breath and bring a mindful focus to the aromatic sensation that you are receiving.

Push aside any immediate reactions like: Yes, I like this or No, I don’t.

Try to appreciate that a scent is something alive, vibrant, varied, and unique.


  • the layers of smell
  • the shape of the smell (pointed, sharp, rounded, dull)
  • the memories it conjures and the feelings it arouses

When you smell a fragrance, your brain will register not only the smell but the emotions you feel, and the people, place and/or event associated with the smell (Read Our Sense of Smell).

Allow the smell to open itself to you and discover its beauty.

I would love to know if you try this out. What scent(s) did you reflect upon and what happened?


Aftel, M. (2014). Fragrant: The Secret Life of Scent. New York: Riverhead Books.

Peace Rhind, J. (2014). A Sensory Journey. London: Jessica Kingsley Publication.

Patchouli: essential oil profile

Patchouli is one of those essential oils that, in my experience, people seem to have strong opinions about. Many people have olfactory memories, good or bad, associated with the earthy scent.

The scent is often described as overpowering, too heavy, too earthy – the scent of hippies. I think that it may be one of the most misunderstood essential oils.

Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) is an aromatic, perennial shrub, with large green leaves and purple flowers. It’s a member of the mint family.  The patchouli plants of Southeast Asia are renowned for their aromatic oils (Purchon & Cantele, 2014). The leaves contain the essential oil  which is steam distilled from the fresh or dried leaves.

Some history

Patchouli has been valued since ancient times. There is archaeological evidence that people used patchouli, in its whole leave form, for incense and medicine in ancient Egypt, India, China, and Greece. In China, patchouli was even used to make a perfumed ink for writing on scrolls (Peace Rhind, 2015).

Patchouli was first introduced to the western world though trade in the 18th and 19th century.

It was common place for silk traders from India to pack the valuable silk that they were trading with dried patchouli leaves. Known as a powerful moth repellent, the tenacious aroma of patchouli was pervasive in the silks.

This practice, which had started as a means of protection for the silk, ended with patchouli being considered an affluent scent associated with opulent Eastern goods.

Even Queen Victoria’s linen chests were lined with patchouli leaves.

Patchouli in perfumery

Did you know that patchouli is widely used in perfumery?

Patchouli has been used for its scent for thousands of years, and it still forms one of the basic building blocks of many of today’s perfumes.

Unlike many essential oils, a good patchouli improves with age – like a fine wine.

Patchouli is a popular fixative in natural perfumery and helps to slow down the rate of evaporation of more volatile essential oils. It exhibits outstanding richness and tenacity; the odor can remain perceptible for weeks or even months!

Modern aromatherapy

Patchouli essential oil is valuable for skin care products and treating skin problems. The essential oil:

  • reduces inflammation,
  • kills bacteria, and prevents fungal infections,
  • and is a cell regenerator (Purchon & Cantele, 2014).

Patchouli is the perfect essential oil to use to help bring calm to an overly active mind. Its grounding scent helps reduce tension and anxiety. It is a great essential oil to use in a nightly bath as it is relaxing and can be helpful in treating insomnia.

Bath Salt Recipe

Mix all the ingredients together in a bowl and then add to the bath once filled.

  • 1 – 2 cups Epsom salts
  • 1 – 2 tsp. any carrier oil (e.g. apricot kernel oil or jojoba oil)
  • 3 drops lavender (lavendula angustifolia)
  • 2 drops sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)
  • 2 drops patchouli (Pogostemom cablin)


Peace Rhind, J. (2016). Aromatherapeutic Blending: Essential Oils in Synergy. London: Singing Dragon.

Purchon, N. & Cantele, L. (2014). The Complete Aromatherapy & Essential Oils Handbook for Everyday Wellness. Toronto: Robert Rose.

Applying essential oils to the skin

There are a lot of different opinions about whether or not it is safe to apply undiluted essential oils directly on to the skin without a carrier or base oil.

In this blog post, I have gathered together the wisdom of respected aromatherapists in North America to answer the question:

Is it safe to use undiluted essential oils on my skin?

Our first stop is to check out what some professional aromatherapy associations & organizations have to say.

The Canadian Federation of Aromatherapists (CFA) does not recommend or condone the application of undiluted essential oils – stating that essential oils can be irritating and sensitizing and some chemical constituents have the potential to cause systemic toxicity if used improperly (CFA, 2016).

The Alliance of International Aromatherapists does not support the use of neat (undiluted) essential oils to the skin because of the danger of skin irritation, allergic reactions or sensitization (AIA, 2016).

The National Association of Holistic Aromatherapy recommends generally avoiding the use of undiluted essential oils on your skin, stating that certain essential oils are unsuitable for application on the skin because they contain constituents that may irritate or sensitize the skin without first being properly diluted in a carrier (i.e. a vegetable oil or full fat milk).

What are the safety concerns?

Most aromatherapy oil based blends are between 1 and 5 percent dilutions, which typically does not represent a safety concern. See NAHA’s Methods of Application page for information on recommended dilutions.

As one increases dilution, potential dermal (skin) reactions may take place depending on the individual essential oil, the area where the oil is applied, and other factors related to the client’s own sensitivity levels (NAHA, 2016).

Dermal or skin reactions that may occur with essential oils include:

Dermal irritation
  • The essential oil produces an immediate irritation on the skin. The reaction on the skin could be blotchy or red, and perhaps even painful for some people. The severity of the reaction will depend on the concentration (dilution) that was applied to the skin.
  • Essential oils considered to be dermal irritants include, cinnamon bark, clove bud, lemongrass, and oregano.
Dermal sensitization
  • This is a type of allergic reaction that happens when first exposed to an essential oil; however, there is no (or only a slight) reaction on the skin. Subsequent exposure to the same material, or to a similar one with which there is cross-sensitization, produces a severe inflammatory reaction brought about by cells of the immune system (NAHA, 2016).
  • The reaction on the skin will be blotchy or red, and painful to some individuals.
  • Essential oils considered to be dermal sensitizers include cassia and cinnamon bark.
  • Photosensitizing essential oils will cause burning or skin pigmentation changes on exposure to sun or ultraviolet rays. See my blog post on Citrus oils & the sun for more information.
  • Essential oils considered to be photosensitizers include bergamot and expressed lemon and lime essential oils.

I highly recommend checking out NAHA’s safety information page for a complete list of essential oils that are dermal irritants, dermal sensitizers, and photosensitizers. As well, AromaWeb’s Essential Oil Safety page contains valuable information.

What do leaders in the professional aromatherapy community have to say about this?

Some aromatherapists advocate for always diluting essential oils with a carrier before applying to the skin, while others state that there are some situations where you can apply essential oils undiluted to your skin.

Robert Tisserand (2014), recognized for his pioneering work in aromatherapy, states that besides the potential skin reactions, applying undiluted essential oils to the skin may lead to relatively high constituent concentrations in the bloodstream which increases the risk of systemic toxicity. He also states that the risk of drug interaction is increased with the application of undiluted essential oils to the skin (Tisserand & Young, 2014).

Tisserand states that there might be situations where undiluted essential oils can be applied safely to the skin, but “most practitioners should should avoid using essential oils this way, and encouraging untrained people to apply concentrated essential oils to themselves or others is unwise and unsafe.” (Tisserand & Young, 2014)

If you are interested in learning more, I suggest reading Tisserand’s book Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals, considered to be the aromatherapy industry reference.

Sylla Sheppard Hanger, founder of the Atlantic Institute of Aromatherapy has been advocating essential oil safety and education for many years.

We hear charismatic speakers at conferences touting wondrous healings with massive doses of irritant oils for clinical cases of severe infection or chronic diseases. But for the majority of us using essential oils for health, very few are appropriately qualified in appropriate disciplines or even need to use essential oils this way (Burfield & Sheppard-Hanger, 2005).

Since 2014, the Atlantic Institute of Aromatherapy has been collecting data on cases of injury and adverse effects of essential oils in the United States. You can check out the Injury Reports  which include lots of detailed information about the essential oils used, the essential oil company, and the method of application.

Most of the injuries reported came from the application of undiluted essential oils to the skin.

I think it is important to note that there were zero injuries, or adverse effects as a result of consultation by a Certified Aromatherapy Professional or a Clinically Trained Aromatherapy Professional.

Many other aromatherapists have written extensively on essential oil safety. It is worth reading 10 Epic Essential Oil Myths and Aromatic Medicine and the French Method of Aromatherapy written by Amy Kreydin, a clinically-trained aromatherapist who trained at a Harvard teaching hospital in Boston.

There are aromatherapists who are not opposed to using essential oils undiluted on the skin, but….

They recommend using undiluted essential oils:

  • on small specific areas
  • for acute situations (i.e. a bee sting, a burn, a cut)
  • for short-term use

This group of aromatherapists, however, do not support the widespread use of undiluted essential oils on the body.

Jade Shutes, founder of the School for Aromatic Studies  states that undiluted application is only applied in a specific localized area, most commonly for acute conditions (Shutes, 2013).

Undiluted application may be appropriate for treating acne (spot treatment), a cold sore, a minor burn, insect bites, bruises, minor skin traumas, migraines, bruises, and ear infections (Shutes, 2013).

Shutes stresses the importance of having a reason or purpose for applying the essential oils undiluted in the first place. She also stresses the importance of knowing the essential oils that you are using, understanding their therapeutic actions, and their chemistry (Shutes, 2013).

In Conclusion

I believe that less is truly more with essential oils and aromatherapy.

As a Certified Aromatherapy Health Professional, I highly recommend diluting essential oils before applying them topically.

I encourage you to take the time to identify and understand authentic and safe aromatherapy applications of essential oils in order to make informed decisions about your wellness.


Alliance of International Aromatherapists. (2016). Aromatherapy Safety. Retrieved from

Burfield, T & Sheppard-Hanger, S. (2005). Aromatherapy Undiluted- Safety and Ethics. Retrieved from

Canadian Federation of Aromatherapists. (2016). Statement from CFA pertaining to safety when using essential oils. Retrieved from

Kreydin, A. (2014). Essential Oils and the Feet. [blog post]. Retrieved from

National Association of Holistic Aromatherapy. (2016). Safety Information. Retrieved from

Shutes, J. (2013). Undiluted Application of Essential Oils. [blog post]. Retrieved from

Tisserand, R. & Young, R. Essential Oil Safety. (2014). Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.

Peppermint: essential 0il profile

In the early years of my aromatherapy practice, I used a peppermint essential oil that came from the United States. The sweet minty scent reminded me of candy canes and Christmas. It was ok, but definitely not a scent I was naturally drawn to.

I will never forget the moment that I smelled an organic peppermint essential oil from France. Oo la la! The scent was green, lush, and soothing.  And so very different from the other variety I had been using.

Recently, a client of mine had a similar experience in my aromatherapy studio. Her delight in smelling the organic peppermint led me to write this blog.

An overview

Peppermint is a perennial herb that easily spreads. It is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves and it is uplifting, refreshing, cooling, and stimulating.

Peppermint’s most important chemical component is menthol which has several well-researched properties. Peppermint essential oil is:

  • Analgesic – it can be very helpful for reducing muscle pain
  • Anti-inflammatory – it can be used for an acute injury where there is swelling
  • Antibacterial – it is useful in a blend for colds and flus
  • Antispasmodic – it is a great digestive aid (think peppermint tea!)
  • Stimulating – the scent energizes the mind, so do not use before bed
  • Cooling – the presence of menthol induces a cooling sensation and using the essential oil in a body mist (diluted) can cool you down


Tension Headache Relief Oil

  • 4 drops peppermint essential oil
  • 8 drops orange essential oil
  • 30 ml carrier oil (like jojoba oil)

Apply to the shoulders and neck at the beginning of a tension headache. Avoid using on the face. Apply every 15 minutes for an hour.

Mental Awake Diffuser Blend

  • 5 drops lemon essential oil
  • 2 drops peppermint essential oil
  • 2 drops rosemary essential oil

Blend the essential oils together and add 4 – 5 drops to a diffuser.

Travel Sickness Remedy

  • 2-3 drops of peppermint essential oil on a cotton ball
  • Store the cotton ball in a ziplock bag.
  • When you start to feel motion sickness, open the bag and smell the peppermint.

Safety tips

Based on research,  we should take extra caution when using this essential oil. Here are some recommendations:

  • Do not use topically with babies or children under five years old
  • The essential oil can be irritating if applied on the face or near the eyes.
  • It may be skin irritating if used in the bath.
  • Always dilute peppermint essential oil before applying it to your skin. Use a maximum of 5 – 6 drops per 30 ml of carrier oil.
  • Tisserand and Young (2014) state that peppermint essential oil should be avoided in the instance of cardiac fibrillation and by those with a G6PD deficiency.


Tisserand, R. & Young, R. Essential Oil Safety. (2014). Second Edition. United Kingdom: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier.